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### Table of Contents

###### FOREWORD

###### ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

###### ABSTRACT

###### Section 1: INTRODUCTION

###### 1.1 Academic confidence and dyslexia at university

###### I Dyslexia

###### II Academic Confidence

###### III Academic Behavioural Confidence

###### IV Location and Stance of the Study: Impact Statement

###### 1.2 Research Design and Methodological Overview

###### I Background: The preceding small-scale enquiry

###### II Structure and Process; The espistemological position of the enquiry

###### III Register

###### 1.3 Research Importance

###### 1.4 Research questions and hypotheses

###### â€‹

###### Section 2: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES - A review of selected literature

###### Introduction

###### 2.1 Dyslexia

###### I Dyslexia, whatever it is, is complicated

###### II Theoretical standpoints of dyslexia

###### 1. Dyslexia is a phonological processing disturbance

###### 2. Dyslexia is attributable to visual disturbances

###### 3. Dyslexia is a rapid auditory processing disturbance

###### 4. Dyslexia results from a mildly dysfunctional cerebellum

###### 5. Dyslexia is a manifestation of natural human neuro-diversity

###### 6. Dyslexia is a multi-factorial information processing difference

###### III Equitability in learning systems - accommodating dyslexia?

###### IV Labels, categories, dilemmas of difference, inclusivity

###### V Impact of the process of identification

###### VI To identify or not to identify - is that the question?

###### VII Measuring dyslexia - "How dyslexic am I?"

###### VIII Dyslexia - summary

###### 2.2 Academic Confidence

###### I Overview

###### II Underpinning research perspectives:

###### 1. An overview of Social Cognitive Theory

###### 2. Self-efficacy in social cognitive theory and in learning

###### 3. Dimensions of self-efficacy

###### 4. Task/domain specificity

###### 5. Mediating processes in learning (academic) self-efficacy

###### 6 Agency

###### III Social Cognitive Theory in education and learning

###### IV Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC)

###### 1. Historical development of ABC

###### 2. Recent research using the ABC Scale

###### â€‹

###### Section 3: RESEARCH DESIGN - Methodology and Methods

###### 3.1 Research design overview

###### Design focus

###### 3.2 Research Participants - groups and subgroups

###### 3.3 Data Collection

###### I Objectives

###### II Questionnaire design rationales

###### 1. Demographic data

###### 2. Quantitative data

###### Likert Scales

###### 1 The Academic Behavioural Confidence Scale

###### 2.1 Six psychometric scales

###### 2.2 The Dyslexia Index (Dx) Profiler

###### 3. Qualitative data

###### 4. Questionnaire Pilot

###### 3.4 Procedure

###### 3.5 Data Reduction

###### 3.6 Developing the Dyslexia Index Profiler

###### I Background and Rationale

###### II Establishing the Dyslexianess Continuum

###### III Designing the Dx Profiler

###### IV Validating the Dx Profiler using a small-scale enquiry

###### 1. Rationale, methods and processes

###### 2. Recruitment of participants

###### 3. Process

###### 4. Results and Outcomes

###### 5. Discussion

###### 6. Generating the Dyslexia Index

###### 7. Concluding summary

###### â€‹

###### â€‹

###### Section 4: RESULTS and ANALYSIS

###### 4.1 Overview

###### I Objectives

###### II Analysing quantitative data - Rationales

###### 1. Internal consistency (reliability) - Cronbach's É‘

###### 2. Effect sizes

###### 3. Null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST); ANOVA

###### 4. Dimension reduction

###### 5. Multiple regression analysis

###### III Analysing qualitative data - Rationales

###### 4.2 Terminology

###### 4.3 Results

###### I Demographics

###### 1. Distribution by gender

###### 2. Distribution by domicile

###### 3. Distribution by study level

###### II How students with dyslexia learned of their dyslexia

###### III Dyslexia Index

###### 1. Internal reliability of the Dx Profiler - Dx20, Dx16 Scales

###### 2. Dx Profiler distributions and basic statistics

###### 3. Setting boundary values for Dx

###### IV Academic Behavioural Confidence

###### 1. Internal reliability of the ABC Scales

###### 2. Difference in mean ABC values

###### 4.4 Relating results to hypotheses

###### 4.5 Further analysis: Dimension reduction

###### I Overview - applying dimension reduction to the ABC Scale and the Dx

###### Profilers

###### 1. Assumptions and preliminary work

###### 2. Eigenvalue Monte Carlo Simulations

###### II PCA on Academic Behavioural Confidence

###### III PCA on Dyslexia Index

###### IV Comparing ABC Factor means

###### 4.6 Applying multiple regression analysis

###### â€‹

###### Section 5: DISCUSSION

###### 5.1 Context of the enquiry

###### I Summary overview

###### II Challenges

###### 5.2 Summary of the outcomes

###### I Composition of the datapool

###### II Prevalence of dyslexia in this current study

###### III The relationship between dyslexia-ness and academic confidence

###### IV Diagnosing dyslexia: does this impact significantly on academic

###### confidence?

###### â€‹

###### Section 6: CONCLUDING COMMENTARIES AND REFLECTIONS

###### 6.1 Summarizing the purpose of the research

###### 6.2 Summarizing the research outcomes

###### 6.3 Limitations of the research

###### I Scale liimitations

###### II Data collection, sampling and datapool limitations; measurement issues

###### 6.4 Directions for future research

###### 6.5 Concluding remarks

###### â€‹

###### Section 7: REFERENCES

###### â€‹

###### Section 8: APPENDICES

###### 8.1 The Research Questionnaire

###### 8.2 Ethics approval documentation

Contents

### List of Figures

###### Figure 1:

###### Process chain indicating components of the cerebellar deficit theory of dyslexia (adapted from Nicholson et al., 2001, p510).

###### Figure 2:

###### Competing/contributing factors which may constitute a dyslexic profile (adapted from Fletcher, 2009, p511).

###### Figure 3:

###### An adaptation of the Triadic Reciprocal Causation model.

###### Figure 4:

###### Conditional relationships between self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies (adapted from Bandura, 1997, p22).

###### Figure 5: Illustrating a contradictory, uni-directional relationship from outcome expectancies to behaviour (adapted from Williams, 2010, p420).

###### Figure 6:

###### Illustrating magnitude and strength of self-efficacy.

###### Figure 7:

###### Summary of components and factors leading from self-efficacy beliefs to outcome expectancy (summarized from Bandura, 1997a, p23-26).

###### Figure 8:

###### Selecting how dyslexic students learned of their dyslexia.

###### Figure 9:

###### Profile chart for a participant in the quasi-dyslexic subgroup.

###### Figure 10:

###### The Dyslexia-ness Continuum - displaying data from this current study.

###### Figure 11:

###### Dyslexia dimensions distributed across BDA components.

###### Figure 12:

###### Continuous range input slider for Dx Dimenions #04.

###### Figure 13:

###### Option-selector sentence to indicate how students learned of their dyslexia.

###### Figure 14:

###### Dx distributions for the non-dyslexia (RG:ND) and the dyslexic groups (RG:DI) from both Dx Scales.

###### Figure 15:

###### Normal Q-Q plots for Dyslexia Index.

###### Figure 16:

###### Research groups located on the Dyslexia-ness Continuum using the Dx20, and Dx16 Scales.

###### Figure 17:

###### Scree plot of raw data and Eigenvalue Monte Carlo Simulations for the ABC24 Scale.

###### Figure 18:

###### Scree plot of raw data and Eigenvalue Monte Carlo Simulations for the Dx20 Profiler Scale.

###### Figure 19:

###### Scree plot of eigenvalues for components (factors) of PCA on the ABC24 Scale.

###### Figure 20:

###### Scree plot of eigenvalues for components (factors) of PCA on the Dx20 Profiler Scale.

###### Figure 21:

###### Raw score differences in ABC Factor means as defined by the Dx20 Profiler Scale.

###### Figure 22:

###### Raw score differences in ABC Factor means as defined by the Dx16 Profiler Scale.

###### Figure 23:

###### Scatterplot of Academic Behavioural Confidence against Dyslexia Index for the complete datapool.

###### Figure 24 (not shown):

###### Research Ethics Review Form A.

###### Figure 25 (not shown):

###### Ethics Sub-Committee request for research clarification.

###### Figure 26 (not shown):

###### Response to request for research clarification.

###### Figure 27 (not shown):

###### Middlesex University Ethics Approval Document

###### Figure 28 (not shown):

###### Risk Assessment Form FRA1

Figures

### List of Tables

###### Table 1:

###### Dimensions and components of academic self-concept, academic self-efficacy and Academic Behavioural Confidence.

###### Table 2:

###### Dx Profiler dimension statements, dyslexia attributes, and supporting references.

###### Table 3:

###### Prevalence of dyslexia dimensions.

###### Table 4:

###### Weightings assigned to dyslexia-ness dimension statements.

###### Table 5:

###### Example calculation of Dyslexia Index.

###### Table 6:

###### Demographic distribution of the datapool by dyslexia status, home domicile, gender and study level.

###### Table 7:

###### Demographic distribution of Test, Base and Control subgroups by home domicile, gender and study level.

###### Table 8:

###### Summary of dyslexia self-report statement: 'My dyslexia was "..." to me as a learning "..." .

###### Table 9:

###### Comparing ABC mean values of dyslexic students according to how they learned of their dyslexia.

###### Table 10:

###### Cronbach's É‘ reliability coefficients for the Dx20 andDx16 Scales.

###### Table 11:

###### Dyslexia Index summary according to research group.

###### Table 12:

###### Dx parameters for the Test and Control subgroups.

###### Table 13:

###### Reliability coefficients for the ABC Scales.

###### Table 14:

###### Summary of ABC mean values by research group and subgroup according to ABC and Dx Scales.

###### Table 15:

###### ABC Scales' effect sizes (Hedges' g) when the subgroups were defined according to the Dx20 Scale.

###### Table 16:

###### ABC Scales' effect sizes (Hedges' g) when the subgroups were defined according to the Dx16 Scale.

###### Table 17:

###### Parallel Analysis: Principal components and raw data permutations for the ABC24 Scale.

###### Table 18:

###### Parallel Analysis: Principal components and raw data permutations for the ABC17 Scale.

###### Table 19:

###### Parallel Analysis: Principal components and raw data permutations for the Dx20 Profiler.

###### Table 20:

###### Parallel Analysis: Principal components and raw data permutations for the Dx16 Profiler.

###### Table 21:

###### Rotated component matrix for ABC24 and ABC17 Scales (Sander & Sanders) showing factor loadings, and which items were removed as redundant from the ABC24 Scale (x).

###### Table 22:

###### Rotated component matrix for the locally derived ABC21-L and ABC17-L Scales showing factor loadings, and which items were removed as redundant from the ABC24 Scale (x).

###### Table 23:

###### Total variance explained for the PCA on the ABC24 Scale.

###### Table 24:

###### Total variances explained for PCAs on the ABC17, ABC21-L and ABC17-L Scales.

###### Table 25:

###### The distribution of ABC dimensions into factors for each version of the ABC Scale.

###### Table 26:

###### Total variance explained for components generated by PCA on the Dx20 PRofiler Scale.

###### Table 27:

###### Factor loadings for 2-factor and 3-factor solutions of PCA on the Dx20 Profiler (* dimension with revers-coded data)..

###### Table 28:

###### Possible 3-factor sub-scale strtucture for the Dx20 Profiler.

###### Table 29:

###### Comparison of ABC Factor MEans for all ABC Scales; subgroups established from Dx20 and Dx16 Profiler Scales.

###### Table 30:

###### Effect size differences in ABC Factor Means between non-dyslexic (ND) and dyslexic (DI) groups and between Test and Baase, and Test and Control subgroups when defined by Dx20 outputs.

###### Table 31:

###### Effect size differences in ABC Factor Means between non-dyslexic (ND) and dyslexic (DI) groups and between Test and Baase, and Test and Control subgroups when defined by Dx16 outputs.

###### Table 32:

###### Values of R-squared for simple, linear regressions for all permutations of ABC and Dx Profiler Scales.

###### Table 33:

###### Comparisons of mean ABC24 between observed and expected values according to multiple regression models I-IV.

Tables

### List of Abbreviations

Abbreviation | Explanation |
---|---|

ABC | Academic Behavioural Confidence |

ACS | Academic Confidence Scale |

ADD | Attention Deficit Disorder |

ADHD | Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder |

ADSHE | Association of Dyslexia Specialists in Higher Education |

BDA | British Dyslexia Association |

BRAIN.HE | Best Resources for Achievement and Intervention re Neurodiversity in Higher Education |

CDT | Cerbellar Deficity Theory |

DAST | Dyslexia Adult Screening Test |

DSA | Disabled Students' Allowance |

Dx | Dyslexia Index |

EMCS | Eigenvalue Monte Carlo Simulation |

HE | Higher Education |

HESA | Higher Education Statistics Agency |

IPA | Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis |

LADS | Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screener |

MIS | Meares-Irlen Syndrome |

MSc | Master of Science |

NHST | Null Hypothesis Significance Test |

PCA | Principal Component Analysis |

QAA | Quality and Assurance Agency for Higher Education |

QRI | Questionnaire Response Identifier |

RG:DI | Research Group DI - students with identified dyslexia |

RG:DNI | Research Group DNI - students with quasi-dyslexia |

RG:ND | Research Group ND - students with no identified dyslexia |

SATA | Scholastic Abilities Test for Adults |

SCT | Social Cognitive Theory |

SLE | Smart Learning Environment |

SSD | Speech Sound Disorder |

STM | Short Term Memory |

TEF | Teaching Excellence Framework |

UDL | Universal Design for Learning |

VLE | Virtual Learning Environment |

ViS | Visual Stress |

WFN | World Federation of Neurology |

YAA-R | York Adult Assessment - Revised |

Abbreviations

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